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Scientific achievements of Prof. S.N. Fyodorov (ENG)

The name of Prof. Fyodorov in Russia and in the world is associated first of all with the artificial crystalline lens (intraocular lens), the radial keratotomy surgery and the Eye Microsurgery Research and Technology Complex.

Svyatoslav N. Fyodorov performed his first implantation of intraocular lens (IOL) in 1960. It was the Binkhorst iris-clip-lens model of own manufacture. In 1960 he carried out 4 implantations of these lenses. Prospects of selected research trends were proved during subsequent decades. Only in Russia S. N. Fyodorov and his disciples performed about 1.5 million such operations. The first hundreds of intraocular lenses, which are still standing in the eyes of the patients were produced and implanted at his medical institution in 1961-1967 years. The posterior keratotomy technique by Sato was mastering in experiment on rabbits as well as vitrectomy and a possibility of silicone injection into the vitreous cavity. Development of microsurgical technology became a main task. Surgical microscopes, microsurgical instruments were introduced by Fyodorov into everyday practice. An original formula for the calculation of IOL power was created under the leadership of Prof. Fyodorov, and also instrumental measuring methods of the axial length of the eye, a new iris-clip lens by Fyodorov-Zakharov – the Sputnik IOL (1966), a new material for the Spectrum IOL (a yellow IOL with a ultraviolet filter). Researches of Prof. Fyodorov laid the foundations of up-to-date implantology.

Fyodorov initiated a development of serious morphological investigations, which allowed to substantiate new surgical approaches to the treatment of cataract, glaucoma, diabetic eyes, retinal detachment, myopia. A constant search for new biological and polymeric materials was carried out, which later became the basis of development of own scientific-experimental production. 1968 - scleroplasty in case of myopia, the first operations of keratomileusis without freezing, 1972–1974 - the first operations of radial keratotomy. And again everything for the first time: a first micrometric knife for the dosed keratotomy (at first - metallic blades, then diamond blades), a set of keratotomic instruments, a mathematical calculation for the refractive effect of the operation. S.N. Fyodorov is a pioneer of intraocular correction in refractive errors he has proposed phakic IOL to correct the highest degrees of myopia and hyperopia. The Department of laser surgery was established at the Institute headed by him in 1974. And again a breakthrough occurred in the refractive surgery: there were created a method of infrared laser keratoplasty (instead of the previously created thermokeratoplasty) in case of hyperopia and an excimer laser keratectomy in myopia using the domestic "Profile" laser unit. The LASIK surgery was performed for the first time in Russia.

Since 1965 S.N. Fyodorov began to work in the field of keratoplasty and keratoprosthesis surgery. The technology of penetrating keratoplasty with grafts of a large diameter (8.0 – 9.0mm), and stepped penetrating keratoplasty were developed. The Fyodorov-Zuev model of keratoprosthesis was created and successfully used in the practice. On his initiative the largest Eye Bank in Russia and Europe was created in 1988.

In 1966-1968 Svyatoslav N. Fyodorov conducted surgeries in transplantation of vitreous body in case of severe hemophthalmia, and since 1972 - vitrectomy. A number of studies on an introduction of vitreoretinal surgery into the practice were performed under his supervision there were operations using silicone oil, perfluorocarbon liquid, as well as material for retinal buckling. The Center for Diabetes of the Eye was established in 1966.

In the early 70-ies on the basis of a number of scientific studies of ocular blood flow and pathological processes in primary open-angle glaucoma Prof. Fyodorov offered to consider glaucoma as an ischemic disease of anterior segment of the eye. Fundamentally new glaucoma operations – scleranguloreconstruction and deep sclerectomy were offered by him. And since the mid 80-ies non-penetrating glaucoma surgery and vasoreconstructive operations were created and successfully developed.

But the main brainchild of Prof. Fyodorov was the Eye Microsurgery Research and Technology Complex that originates April 24, 1986.

Currently, about 300 000 operations are carried out at the highest technological level annually at this organization, including 10 branches in the largest cities of Russia, experts from all over the country are trained here.